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Marijuana is a plant whose scientific name is Cannabis sativa. Its leaves, seeds, stems, and/or roots are consumed by marijuana users for the purpose of feeling intoxicated ("high"). Although the plant contains hundreds of compounds, the one that has major intoxicating effects is called tetrahydrocannibinol (THC). Although medical marijuana is legal in a few states of the United States, it is one of many illegal drugs in most jurisdictions. Marijuana is the most commonly abused illegal substance worldwide. While the number of people who use marijuana at any one time does not seem to have increased in the past decade, the number of people who have a marijuana-related disorder has increased significantly. This seems to be particularly true for elderly individuals as well as for young Hispanic and African-American adults. In teens, boys remain more likely than girls to smoke or otherwise use marijuana
Cannabis belongs to the genus Cannabis in the family Cannabaceae and may include three species, C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis, (APG II system) or one variable species. It is typically a dioecious (each individual is either male or female) annual plant. C. sativa and C. indica generally grow tall, with some varieties reaching 4 meters, or 13 feet. Female plants produce tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) (up to 29% by weight) as the season changes from summer to autumn. C. ruderalis is very short, produces only trace amounts of THC, but is very rich in cannabidiol (CBD), which may be 40% of the cannabinoids in a plant and is an antagonist to THC, and it flowers independently of the photoperiod and according to age. However, commercial cross-bred hybrids containing both ruderalis, indica and/or sativa genes exist (usually called auto flowering)
Increasing legitimacy and legality of medicinal plants nationwide has created great demand for qualified technical personnel and great opportunity for the skilled entrepreneur in the cannabis, herbal extract, and natural product industries. Medicinal Plant Chemistry at Northern Michigan University is the only 4-year undergraduate degree program of its kind designed to prepare students for success in the emerging industries relating to medicinal plant production, analysis, and distribution. The required coursework provides a foundation in chemistry and plant biology, with a capstone research experience involving experimental horticulture and instrumental analysis of natural products, while focus tracks allow students to explore their interests in the relevant areas of business and accounting (Entrepreneurial Track) or advanced topics in chemistry and biology (Bio-analytical Track).
Extraction of cannabis is a simple process, which people have used for centuries. There are many records of people using cannabis tea, hash or tinctures in ancient times. The first mention of hash dates back to the year 900 in Arabia, where people used to eat it rather than smoke it. At the beginning of the second millennium, hash was spread all over the Middle East. It is likely that Napoleon and his troops brought hash to Europe from Egypt around the 1800s. A French doctor, Louis Albert-Roche, recommended the use of hashish in the 1840s. Later in Paris, there was a Club des established, where famous writers like Balzac, Baudelaire and Hugo enjoyed the exotic hashish which may have inspired some of their great masterpieces. People used cannabis tinctures up until 1942 in the USA and up until 1970 in the UK. Nowadays, the science behind cannabis extraction has matured significantly, with more technologically demanding methods being used. The reason people carry out extractions is simple, and remains the same after centuries of practice — the final product is much more potent than the fresh herb, and there are more of the desired compounds present. Therefore it is easier to know the dosage. For example, fresh herb usually contains up to 30 % of THC and 24 % CBD, compared to concentrates which can be up to 99 % pure.
Derived from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa – marijuana – is a psychoactive sedative drug. Its leaves and buds can be smoked, taken in food, brewed in tea or taken in concentrated liquid form. The resins from the marijuana plant can be used to make a form of the drug called hashish. As illegal use of marijuana becomes increasingly widespread, addiction experts are concerned about the drug’s long-term effects on mental function and emotional health.
Cannabis is the world’s most widely used illicit drug with about 10% of young adults in developed countries being regular users. Behavioral and pharmacological studies indicate that both acute and chronic exposure to cannabinoids is associated with impairments in a range of cognitive processes. Neuroimaging methods have provided powerful tools to study the in vivo effects of cannabis on brain function. While there are brain functional differences, such as reduced resting-state, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex blood flow, between cannabis users and controls in healthy populations, brain structural abnormalities related to cannabis use have been reported inconsistently . In contrast, a neurotoxic effect (e.g. shrinkage of neuronal cell bodies and nuclei) of cannabis in animals has been confirmed in many cases. It is assumed, that tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), the main psychoactive substance in cannabis, is the neurotoxic substance. The effects of cannabis on brain structure and function are of particular interest in psychosis patients, as cannabis is known to be a risk factor for psychosis and is widely used in patients with psychosis . There is evidence from structural imaging studies showing robust volume reductions in front-temporal cortices and in the anterior cingulate in patients with schizophrenia suggesting that these changes are underlying pathophysiological processes of this disorder. Cannabis use may therefore be a moderating or causal factor contributing to grey matter alterations in schizophrenia and the development of psychotic symptoms.
Psychiatrists and other behavioral health professionals need to better understand the relationship between cannabis and mental disorders so that they can respond to increasing medical and recreational marijuana use among their patients. More than half of states now allow for medical use, and 8 states and the District of Columbia have legalized adult personal or recreational use. Knowledge about herbal cannabis, the endow cannabinoid system, and cannabinoid pharmacology is rapidly expanding. However, compared with the literature on non-medical cannabis use, the scientific literature on therapeutic use of cannabis is underdeveloped, as noted in a recent systematic review of medical cannabis and mental health. Although herbal cannabis has a long history of medicinal use, its federal prohibition under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 with Drug Enforcement Administration Schedule I status has focused the federally supported cannabis research agenda for half a century on the potential harms rather than on the historically acknowledged therapeutic benefits of this complex plant.
Addiction is a disorder of the mind’s reward framework which emerges through transcriptional and epigenetics mechanisms and occurs after some time from constantly elevated amounts of presentation to an addictive stimulus (e.g. eating food, the utilization of cocaine, engagement in sexual intercourse, participation in high-thrill activities such as gambling, etc.). It falls under two classes, substance abuse or drug addiction and behavioral addiction such as gambling addiction. Individuals with depression or other mental health issues are especially defenseless against alcohol and drug use. Also many people who are addicted to drugs are also diagnosed with other mental disorders, including anxiety and depression. Some may drink alcohol or take drugs to reduce pressure or passionate torment, yet doing as such frequently can create or decline mental health conditions.
The use of alcohol and drugs can negatively affect all aspects of a person’s life, impact their family, friends and community, and place an enormous burden on American society. One of the most significant areas of risk with the use of alcohol and drugs is the connection between alcohol, drugs and crime. Alcohol and drugs are implicated in an estimated 80% of offenses leading to incarceration in the United States such as domestic violence, driving while intoxicated, property offenses, drug offenses, and public-order offenses. Our nation’s prison population has exploded beyond capacity and most inmates are in prison, in large part, because of substance abuse:80% of offenders abuse drugs or alcohol. Nearly 50% of jail and prison inmates are clinically addicted. Approximately 60% of individuals arrested for most types of crimes test positive for illegal drugs at arrest.
- Track 9-1Short-Term Effects of Marijuana Use
- Track 9-2Long-Term Effects of Marijuana use
Research has shown that marijuana’s negative effects on attention, memory, and learning can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off, depending on the person’s history with the drug.53Consequently, someone who smokes marijuana daily may be functioning at a reduced intellectual level most or all of the time. Considerable evidence suggests that students who smoke marijuana have poorer educational outcomes than their nonsmoking peers. For example, a review of relevant studies found marijuana use to be associated with reduced educational attainment (i.e., reduced chances of graduating).54 A recent analysis using data from three large studies in Australia and New Zealand found that adolescents who used marijuana regularly were significantly less likely than their non-using peers to finish high school or obtain a degree. They also had a much higher chance of developing dependence, using other drugs, and attempting suicide.55 Several studies have also linked heavy marijuana use to lower income, greater welfare dependence, unemployment, criminal behavior, and lower life satisfaction.
There are more than 60 systematic reviews and meta-analyses discussing the safety, toxicology, potency, and therapeutic potential of exogenous cannabinoids. However, the general consensus of these reports is largely mixed and inconclusive. The uncertainty surrounding safety and efficacy of exogenous cannabinoids is not a product of the lack of research, but rather a product of the extreme variability in study methodology and quality. This review provides a summary of the current research on the safety and efficacy of exogenous cannabinoids, including a brief description of the chemical constituents of cannabis and how it interacts with the endo cannabinoid system; a summary of what is known about the acute and long-term effects of cannabis; and a discussion of the therapeutic potential. Conclusions on safety and efficacy will then be compared with the current social and political climate in order to highlight the need for policy changes and general guidelines.
Cannabis is currently used as a therapeutic product throughout the world.
The following benefits of cannabis have been documented around the world by various medical and government bodies. Feeling of well-being, Increased sociability, Muscle relaxant, Analgesic effect, Appetite stimulation, Antiemetic effect, Anticonvulsant effect, Lower intraocular pressure In Canada, section 56 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act gives Health Canada the discretionary power to grant an exemption for medical reasons to persons who consider that the use of cannabis is beneficial to their health.
Hence, many sick people in Canada have obtained Health Canada approval to smoke cannabis for therapeutic reasons: however, it is still illegal to grow cannabis. Health Canada has awarded funds for clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of marijuana. Community Research Initiative of Toronto (CRIT): usefulness of cannabis among individuals with HIV/AIDS. McMaster University, Hamilton: usefulness of cannabis among patients with epilepsy. Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Saskatoon: evaluation of the effects of cannabis on muscle spasticity among sufferers of multiple sclerosis and. G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre, Vancouver: evaluation of the effects of cannabis on spasticity of limbs among individuals with spinal cord injuries
Marijuana utilize can prompt the improvement of issue utilize, known as a marijuana use disorder, which appears as addiction in serious cases Marijuana use disorders are regularly associated with dependence—in which a person feels withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Individuals who utilize marijuana every now and again frequently report crabbiness, state of mind and rest troubles, diminished hunger, yearnings, anxiety, and additionally different types of physical uneasiness that crest inside the primary a great many quitting and last up to 2 weeks.
Opioid use disorder is a restorative condition described by a tricky example of opioid utilizes that causes clinically huge weakness or misery. It frequently incorporates a powerful urge to utilize opioids, increased tolerance to opioids, and withdrawal syndrome when opioids are abruptly discontinued. . Opioid dependence can show as physical reliance, mental reliance, or both.
Like tobacco smoke, marijuana smoke is an irritant to the throat and lungs and can cause a heavy cough during use. It also contains levels of volatile chemicals and tar that are similar to tobacco smoke, raising concerns about risk for cancer and lung disease. Marijuana smoking is associated with large airway inflammation, increased airway resistance, and lung hyperinflation, and those who smoke marijuana regularly report more symptoms of chronic bronchitis than those who do not smoke. One study found that people who frequently smoke marijuana had more outpatient medical visits for respiratory problems than those who do not case studies have suggested that, because of THC’s immune-suppressing effects, smoking marijuana might increase susceptibility to lung infections, such as pneumonia, in people with immune deficiencies: however, a large AIDS cohort study did not confirm such an association. Animal and human studies have not found that marijuana increases risk for emphysema.
Neuroimaging has helped to elucidate that substance-use disorders are associated with changes in brain structure, function, and neurochemistry. Neuroimaging studies have improved our understanding of the neural correlates of addiction and how these relate to addictive behavior. Nevertheless, the potential impact of neuroimaging on treatment development for addictions has yet to be fully realized. Despite substantial advances, treatments are often not fully effective, and addiction continues to be a major public health burden . Neuroimaging has contributed to our appreciation of the complexity of addiction, highlighting the need for measurable indices, or biomarkers, of addiction to improve treatment outcomes. A “biomarker” typically refers to a measurable indicator of normal or abnormal biological processes or response to treatment . In substance-abuse research, biomarkers are needed to clarify how or why a treatment has an effect, on whom and under what circumstances.
Recent advances in neuroimaging are affording greater opportunities to identify brain biomarkers that might be used to improve outcomes of treatment for substance-use disorders. Neuroimaging is a critical tool in biomarker development because it relates neural circuits to both molecular mechanisms and behavior or clinical variation. In particular, neuroimaging studies are central to an emerging research effort to identify cross-diagnostic processes in substance-use and related disorders based on both behavior and neural circuits . In this work, alterations in brain activation patterns related to dimensions of functioning in individuals with addictions may be considered to represent abnormal processing associated with addictive behavior. Such research holds significant potential for identifying targets for treatment, detecting subgroups for treatment selection, and/or predicting treatment response . As disorder heterogeneity and individual variation pose significant challenges for delivering effective treatment, considering addictions in terms of dimensions of functioning may help to elucidate factors relevant to treatment response and lead to more specific, more effective treatments . This paper reviews neuroimaging research seeking to identify potential biomarkers of treatment response from several dimensions of functioning relevant to addiction:, impulsivity, and cognitive control.